Colonialism is the consequence of western capital accumulation. It originates from the periods of Discovery and Exploration since 15th century. Some critics think that it breaks the separation of the Old World and the New World and also encourages the exchange of both cultures. (李伯庚, 2003) Actually, from 15th to19th century, it is a long history of exploitation and invasion among European powers. They are motivated by the lure of wealth in Asia, the spice trade in India, the gold and silver in America, and the slaves of Africa after reading Marco Polo’ s Travels.（Spielvogel, 281）During this period, European countries get handsome profits and become great empires. Especially for Britain, till the reign of Queen Victoria, she becomes “the Empire on Which the Sun Never Sets” and “the Mistress of the Seas”. (Clemen, 2003) On the contrary, what they bring to the people in the colonies is ravaging their land, mocking their gods, banishing their languages, decimating their population through disease, and subjugating their children to a subservient and dependent status. (Rogers, 461-519)
However, in colonial literature, all the devil practices of those colonists have been erased, instead, we often find the messages conveyed everywhere that the whites are spreading “civilization” to non-westerners for they justifies that they are under the call of the God to “deliver the inferior races” and “civilize the savages”. Factually, it is one of popular colonial discourses for their cultural colonization or invasion.
Daniel Defoe is a great English novelist in the18th century. Robinson Crusoe, his masterpiece, is either a pioneering English adventure fiction or a typical colonial literature. It not only is a vivid narrative story about the surprising and adventuring life of Robinson, but also has the theme of colonism. With post-colonial criticism as its visual angle, this paper sets on the history of European colonialism, analyzes the description of characters, narrative words and the growing process of “Friday” who loses his national culture identity to deconstruct those binary oppositional colonial discourses: the colonial country and the colony, master and slave, the white and the colored, central culture and marginal culture, civilization and savageness, Christianity and cannibals and the like, explores the strategies for colonist's cultural colonization to those people in the colonies and reveals the dilemma of losing their national culture identity.