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关于鲁滨逊漂流记英语论文

类型:英语论文 时间:2011年6月3日

摘要:《鲁滨逊漂流记》是18世纪英国作家丹尼尔.笛福的代表作,是英国历险小说的源头,也是一部带有强烈殖民主义意识的文学作品。它不仅生动地讲述了小说主人公鲁滨逊开拓荒岛的详细过程,也描绘了他驯服改造原始部族人“星期五”的手段和策略。本课题着重以“后殖民主义批评”为视角,拟从历史文化背景、人物刻画以及话语分析入手,对《鲁滨逊漂流记》中所建立起的宗主国/殖民地,奴隶主/奴隶,白种人/有色人,中心文化/边缘文化,文明/野蛮,基督教/食人部族等二元对立的殖民话语体系进行解构,揭示蕴涵在作品中的殖民主义意识,并阐释鲁滨逊如何以枪炮为后盾,有计划地从语言和宗教信仰两方面对“星期五”进行赤裸裸的文化殖民,使其丧失了原有的民族文化身份,从而造成自我身份丧失的窘境。本课题为读者重读经典开辟了一个新的视角,也为读者审视殖民者的文化统治提供了一个典型个案。
关键词:《鲁滨逊漂流记》;殖民主义;殖民话语;文化殖民
Introduction
Colonialism is the consequence of western capital accumulation. It originates from the periods of Discovery and Exploration since 15th century. Some critics think that it breaks the separation of the Old World and the New World and also encourages the exchange of both cultures. (李伯庚, 2003) Actually, from 15th to19th century, it is a long history of exploitation and invasion among European powers. They are motivated by the lure of wealth in Asia, the spice trade in India, the gold and silver in America, and the slaves of Africa after reading Marco Polo’ s Travels.(Spielvogel, 281)During this period, European countries get handsome profits and become great empires. Especially for Britain, till the reign of Queen Victoria, she becomes “the Empire on Which the Sun Never Sets” and “the Mistress of the Seas”. (Clemen, 2003) On the contrary, what they bring to the people in the colonies is ravaging their land, mocking their gods, banishing their languages, decimating their population through disease, and subjugating their children to a subservient and dependent status. (Rogers, 461-519)
However, in colonial literature, all the devil practices of those colonists have been erased, instead, we often find the messages conveyed everywhere that the whites are spreading “civilization” to non-westerners for they justifies that they are under the call of the God to “deliver the inferior races” and “civilize the savages”. Factually, it is one of popular colonial discourses for their cultural colonization or invasion.
Daniel Defoe is a great English novelist in the18th century. Robinson Crusoe, his masterpiece, is either a pioneering English adventure fiction or a typical colonial literature. It not only is a vivid narrative story about the surprising and adventuring life of Robinson, but also has the theme of colonism. With post-colonial criticism as its visual angle, this paper sets on the history of European colonialism, analyzes the description of characters, narrative words and the growing process of “Friday” who loses his national culture identity to deconstruct those binary oppositional colonial discourses: the colonial country and the colony, master and slave, the white and the colored, central culture and marginal culture, civilization and savageness, Christianity and cannibals and the like, explores the strategies for colonist's cultural colonization to those people in the colonies and reveals the dilemma of losing their national culture identity.

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